Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The effect that Turner syndrome has on a child varies greatly; however there are a few common characteristics. Girls born with Turner syndrome typically have short stature (under 5’) and may have high palate, low-set ears, low hairline, webbed-neck, droopy eyes, broad chest, scoliosis, or flat feet. There is generally no difference in intelligence than a person without Turner syndrome; however a person with this syndrome may difficulty with spatial-temporal processing (imagining objects in relation to each other), nonverbal memory and attention.
Most people are born with two sex chromosomes. A boy inherits the X chromosome from his mother and the Y chromosome from his father. A girl inherits one X chromosome from each parent. If a girl has Turner syndrome, one copy of the X chromosome is missing or abnormal.
About one-third of girls born with Turner syndrome also have some sort of heart and/or kidney abnormality. They are also at greater risk for hypothyroidism, ear infections, and Celiac disease.
The primary treatment for most girls with Turner syndrome involves hormone therapy. They may benefit from receive growth hormones and estrogen therapy. They may also need ongoing medical treatment or monitoring if they have any additional medical needs.
Many factors can affect the prognosis for a child with Turner syndrome, including the severity of symptoms and additional medical needs. Generally, women with Turner syndrome are able to lead active, healthy lives.