Dyskinesia is defined as abnormal, uncontrollable, involuntary movements. There are many different types of dyskinesia with symptoms that range from minor tics to full-body movements.
Symptoms start out as minor shakes, tics or tremors usually in someone's dominant hand or foot. Symptoms worsen gradually over time
The specific treatment plan used for an individual depends on the type of dyskinesia and the severity or extent of symptoms.
If reducing or stopping the use of dyskinesia-causing medications do not stop symptoms, there are few other courses of treatment available.
Choosing an appropriate medication can also be challenging, given that many medications that help control muscle spasms are also known to cause dyskinesia.
Aside from medications, injections of botulinum toxin or Botox may help reduce or limit involuntary movements, especially those affecting the face.
Deep brain stimulation or DBS is a procedure where electrodes are placed in the brain to correct movement and control posture. DBS is considered most effective in people with cases of genetic or idiopathic dyskinesia, the latter being where there is no known cause.