Adoption is a very life-changing milestone for every prospective adoptive parent and family. If you’re certain this is the path you want to traverse, and you want to get on it with full determination, it is now time to decide what type of adoption is right for you.
Everything will sound unnerving at first, but reading this is a great first step. There are many types to choose from, and every type will have different methods depending on your (mental, emotional, and financial) capacity, the child’s needs, and the regulations in place.
Getting informed, knowing all the ins and outs, and calculating all the risks are too important to be missed. Here are things you need to know about the types of adoption:
Embryo adoption is a form of adoption where the adoptive mother carries her genetically unrelated child in her womb, goes through pregnancy and experiences delivery of the child. It is a type of assisted reproduction therapy (AST), technically. Here are some more things you need to know about embryo adoption:
- - 7000 births of babies were products of embryo adoption in the US. And it has been becoming a popular choice for adoptive parents.
- - Embryo adoption offers more security. In the sense that there are fewer legal repercussions in the future, genetic testing can be done, and the adoptive mother raises her child in her womb.
- - $1,000,000 is the annual budget for embryo adoption in the US. The Office of Population Affairs (OPA) Embryo Adoption Awareness program offers grants and ensures that adoptive parents get the needed medical and administrative services they need.
- - Embryo adoption is relatively cheaper for an AST. The adopting family can expect to pay around $10,000-$15,000. This is relatively cheaper than in vitro fertilization (IVF).
- - Embryo adoption is covered by contract ownership laws, not adoption laws.
- - Embryo adoption is the adoptive mother’s choice. Cryo-preserved embryos can be the perfect choice for those who are:
- Infertile, having difficulty achieving pregnancy, and wanting more children and are willing to do frozen embryo transfer (FET).
Domestic adoption, or domestic infant adoption, involves placing US-born infants and children for adoption, by birth parents. For domestic adoption, there are many methods you can choose from. You can go for private domestic adoption or through adoption agencies.
- You have to be chosen by the birth parent/s. This might take some time as you’ll also need to find an adoption lawyer, in addition to the home study process. There’s also a possibility that the birth parent changes their mind before finalizing the process.
Once you’ve decided on the age of the child, consider how the relationship is between the child and the birth family. Here are the two types based on the ‘openness’ of adoption:
Open adoptionThe adoptive parents agree that there stays an open communication between the child and the birth parents as he or she gets older.
Closed adoption - Both parties agree that there is no need for ongoing contact between the child and the birth parents.
Through Adoption Agencies:
- Smooth adoption process with the help of an adoption professional.From matching to completing the documents to sealing the deal, the agency will provide all the guidance you need to make the adoption process as efficient as possible.
- When you’ve decided to seek help, you can go for:
- Local adoption agencies - There is no need for travel and thus lowering your costs. You can also meet your prospective birth mother and get to know about the child’s background face-to-face.
- National adoption agencies - They are fully licensed and follow strict guidelines of every state. However, they are known to have slightly higher fees than a local adoption agency.
Foster Care Adoption
Foster care adoption is the adoption of a child from a foster care who is in the temporary custody of the state. The birth parents’ rights have been mostly terminated due to neglect, abuse, or trauma. If you’re considering foster care adoption, then time to get into some important details:
- - Thousands of children are waiting in foster care. According to federal data, there were 423, 997 waiting for children in foster care in 2019. You can help a child, provide him or her a home.
- - Foster adoption is free, or with minimal fees. For those who are opting for adoption, but don’t have the funds, this might be the option. Adoption fees are funded by the state.
- - Adopting an infant is less likely. Birth parents are given a chance to redeem themselves, so the child is with them soon. Children over the age of two are the ones who are more likely to adopt.
- - Attachment and developmental issues are common with children from foster care. Most likely, experienced abuse and neglect from their biological parents. According to a study, 93% of children have been exposed to at least one traumatic event.
- - You can choose to foster-to-adopt. You can foster a child, and if cannot be reunited with his or her birth family, you can opt for foster care adoption.
- Older Child Adoption Additionally, with having been given consent from birth parents or foster care, if you are adopting an older child, you’ll need his/her consent too. Not just the consent of the birth parents is needed in some states. In approximately 25 states, a child over the age of 14 must consent to the adoption.
International adoption is the process of adopting a child from a country not your own, through legal means. The children are most likely from orphanages. Birth parents give up their rights due to emotional or financial inability. Lots of planning is key if you want to opt for adopting a child abroad, here’s what you need to know:
- - Many different countries are open to international adoption, and there exists a streamlined process. Everything is on a ‘first come, first serve’ basis. Prospective adoptive parents will just wait to be matched with a child. In addition, we should also note that there are also countries in which special restrictions on adoption in place.
- - There’s a lower chance of losing custody of your child. International adoption cannot be reversed. They’re legally binding and final. This might be appealing to some parents who feel like the possibility of reunification is daunting.
- - Most children are at least two years old. It’s easy to see their medical history and know what ongoing treatment should be needed in the future at this age. Knowing such will make it easy for you to decide on how to plan as an adoptive parent.
- - International adoption is long because of the bureaucratic processsome documents need to be completed and approved from both countries.
- - International adoption can be expensiveYou’ll require a special lawyer to keep the process as smooth as possible. According to the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Children’s Issues,
- - Adoptive parents must be prepared to travel abroadSome even need to do multiple visits. Employed adoptive parents must be ready to take leave. The initial process (including meeting the child, the biological family, and the authorities) might last from days to several weeks.
- Special Needs AdoptionIf the child you’re adopting has special needs and you’re emotionally and mentally ready for it, there are many things to take into consideration:
- Secure the child’s medical history records. If you’re opting for international adoption, this is one thing you must ensure as it is common that medical histories of children are nonexistent.
- - Special needs adoption has more challenges as compared to other types of adoption. The child may have future treatments for his or her medical conditions. As a responsible adoptive parent, you must be able to provide his or her necessities.
Everything should be put into consideration before embarking on the adoption process, and we hope our guide gives you a helping hand in this wonderful journey.
However, not only should you be ready to undergo bureaucratic scrutiny, but you also need your whole heart in this. Adoption is a lifelong commitment.
Most importantly, remember also to let other family members in on the discussion. Having everyone’s voice in this decision will help you and the adopted child’s quick adjustment in the future.